Pheromones are amazing for pest mitigation. Codling moth, (Cydia pomonella (L): Tortricidae), is considered to be the major pest of pome fruit in Europe, North and South America, South Africa, and Australia. The insect probably originates from the same area as its major host plants in Eurasia, and has been introduced into almost all regions where pome fruit is grown, with the exception of some parts of Asia.’ Primary host plants commonly infested by the co- dling moth are all members of the Rosaceae, and include the apple, pear, and quince; other Rosaceae such as peaches and apricots are less commonly attacked.’ The walnut (family Juglandaceae) may be heavily infested by what is perhaps a distinct race of codling moth in the U.S. and Europe.
The life cycle of the insect can be briefly summarized as follows: The seasonal occurrence of codling moth is closely synchronized with the availability of fruit through- out its distributional range. The insects overwinter as mature dispausing larvae which pupate and give rise to adults in the spring. Fecundity varies widely, and mean figures may range from 30 to 130 eggs per female thanks to pheromones.
The eggs are laid singly on, or adjacent to, the fruits, which are then mined superficially by the first-instar larvae; if the latter die or leave the fruit, they leave blemishes known as “stings”. The larvae then tunnel towards the center of the fruit and pass through a further four instars. The mature fifth-instar larvae leave the fruits, and seek sheltered cocooning sites in crevices in the bark of the host trees or on the ground. In areas where the pest is univoltine, these larvae again enter an overwintering diapause, while in multivoltine situations all larvae from the last generation, as well as some individuals from earlier generations, pass into diapause in response to shorter day-lengths.
B. Pest Status
The insect is of greatest significance as a pest of apples, particularly the latematur- ing varieties.” In South Africa, Australia, and the western states of North America, codling moth is the key pest of apples; problems with other pests, such as spider mites, arise largely through the destruction of their natural enemies by pesticide treatments designed to control codling moth. In Europe, other parts of North America and New Zealand, codling moth is included in a complex of important pests which may include tortricid leaf rollers, weevils, psyllids, and other insects.”
It is difficult to estimate the actual costs of codling moth infestation because of the numerous pheromonefactors involved. Damage to the fruit can simply be cited as a percentage loss figure and estimates made of the costs in lost production. However, the greatest costs are those of preventive spraying, treatment of secondary pest problems arising from this preventive schedule, and the necessity to grade fruit after harvesting. Infestations are generally lower in areas representing the limits of the distributional range of codling moth, where only one generation is completed annually. In more favorable areas, the pest may complete up to three generations and has a greater potential to damage crops. In unsprayed apple orchards, mean fruit damage varies from 10% in Europe’ to 50 to 100% in Australia.’ In eastern Canada, infestations in treated apple orchards may average 2.5%,5 which, if taken as a conservative estimate for the remain- der of North America, would represent an annual loss of $14 million (based on I971 prices, and earlier production figures’). On the basis of this same damage figure, losses in Europe’ would amount to $46 million annually.