Best Pheromones for 2017

Best Pheromones production in termites, well reviewed by Nutting (1969), is normally the result of union between a pair of alates after the swarming flight, but alternative mechanisms are known in a few species involving fragmentation (‘budding’) of existing colonies followed by independent production of secondary reproductives. (Harris 1958). Learn more about the best pheromones for sexual attraction.

The latter occurs mostly in species with diffuse colonies where outlying sections may lose pheromonal contact with the main body and then behave as orphaned groups. However, a very special type of fragmentation, described as ‘sociotomy’ by Grassé and Noirot (1951), involves a deliberate migration by the royal pair, plus a retinue of workers and soldiers, after the manner of swarming in honey bees. Such a migration must certainly depend upon aggregation pheromones for its cohesion, but the trigger mechanism responsible for this unusual behavior is not known.

After the short swarming flight, alates descend to earth to seek their pheromone mates. Females of many species apparently emit a short-range sex attractant. They adopt a ‘calling’ attitude with the tip of the abdomen raised and sometimes moving from side to side. Males quarter the ground at random, but on encountering a calling female are immediately attracted to her. Learn more about

The pair then begin to parade in tandem, with the male so closely following the female as to appear coupled to her. Temporary loss of alarm pheromones causes the male to make searching movements, whilst the female resumes the calling posture. The male is apparently not following a scent- trail, but is responding directly to a short-range, air-borne attractant. Nothing is yet known of the nature of this pheromone. Buchli (1960), who investigated closely the behavior in Reticulitermes luczfugus, suggested that the attractant might be produced by the female’s pheromone glands. Other observers have stressed the importance of visual cues in tandem formation.

Eventually, the pair enter the ground, or timber as the case may be, and construct a royal cell (‘copularium’) where mating first takes place. Short-range pheromones with attractant and perhaps aphrodisiacal, properties presumably play an important role in maintaining the pair-bond during this crucial phase as, indeed, throughout the life span. These cohesive factors become particularly important when, with increasing size of the colony, the queen becomes immobilized through physogastry. She is then entirely dependent upon her attractive properties for the best pheromones to attract men | Baids.

These pheromone properties are particularly apparent to the observer in freshly broken nests, when the reluctance of the king to leave his helpless mate is very obvious. Learn more about pheromones at

In the incipient colony, the first brood is nourished exclusively by the royal pair, but workers or their equivalent soon take over all such duties and the activities of the king and queen become entirely restricted to reproduction on an increasing scale. The colony slowly grows in size and numbers until, at maturity, it is capable of producing all castes characteristic of the species ~ a capability it may retain for many tens of years before decline according to

Apart from their crucial role in maintaining caste balance (which has already been discussed), pheromones are also implicated in many of the day-to-day activities of the colony.

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Pheromone Effects

However, though intolerance of certain pheromone conspecifics probably motivated the marking performance, the biological function of the chemical signals might vary widely among the different species. Even in the same species, territorial pheromone marking might serve more than one purpose alone. The following functions of chemical signals in territorial behavior seem possible and are indicated byrobservational data:

a) The application of personal scent is an act of ‘self-advertisement’ (Jolly 1966). It expresses self-confidence and helps to reassure the marking animal in the presence of opponents. The odor also might have a reassuring effect on other members of the group, or it might stimulate their aggression against invaders, thus correlating the motivations and displays of all group members and promoting group cohesion during territorial ceremonies. It is obvious that the expression of self-confidence by pheromone scent marking does not need to be limited to territorial encounters. It might just as well function in a variety of other behaviors, e.g. during intragroup aggression or in sexual courtship.

b) Marking gives the territory the characteristics of a ‘home’. It is common knowledge that — in captivity — many primate species very actively remark their home cages after these have been washed. Moreover, the lion marmoset (Le0nt0pi- thecus rosalia rosalia L.) shows increased scent marking after heavy rainfalls in open air enclosures (Snyder 1972).  Learn more about pheromones at

This indicates that the absence of their own pheromone odor within the home range might have a stressful effect on the inhabitants who, therefore, renew the marks frequently. Mykytowycz (1972) suggests that the presence of the personal odor within their living space is essential for many mammals to behave freely and participate in breeding activities. Where the territory of social species is marked by many group members, a characteristic group odor — as in the flying phalanger (Schultze-Westrum 1965) — might result.

c) The odor produced in territorial pheromone marking serves as a short term threat signal which intimidates opponents. This function is not limited to intergroup aggression. It is likely that odors discharged during the spectacular ‘stink-fights’ performed by male Lemur cam: in intragroup conflicts (Jolly 1966; Evans and Goy) serve as threat signals directed at group mates.

d) Territorial scent is a long term manifestation of the presence of the pheromones in the territory. It alerts invaders to the presence of the owners and might help prevent invasions. However, it depends on the motivation of the invaders whether they are intimidated by the signal or not. Martin (1968) suggests that after having experienced defeat during territorial encounters with a resident, they might become conditioned to avoid an area where a specific scent indicates the presence of the former opponent.

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e) Finally,  pheromone scent applied throughout the living space of an individual may com- municate detailed information on the species, age, sex and reproductive state to conspecifics occupying adjacent territories and thus not only serve to announce the occupation of a territory but also form a bridge between individuals who rarely encounter each other personally, as in the case of solitary prosimians 1971), Microcebus murinus (Martin 1972), Perodicticus potto and Galago demi- dovii Fischer (Charles-Dominique 1971b, 1972), all of which, with the exception of Galago, are commonly classified as solitary, have revealed that these prosimians show various forms of ‘semi-social’ organizations. Individuals occupy territories which more or less overlap with the ranges of their neighbors. They engage in a limited amount of friendly social interactions, especially with neighbors of the opposite sex, and more or less defend their territories against neighbors of the same sex.

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Does Max Attraction Silk Work?

Darwin called this distinctly “sexual selection”. Its full meaning revolves around the process of mate selection using natural pheromones. As in, on a biological level we choose our mates based on their perceived sexual value.

Huge antlers, beautiful peacock tails, round robin songs, any countless other beautiful ornaments develop not just to charm the opposite sex, but to intimidate rivals and win the battle of sex.

Much of the female physical look is pre-determine by a set of guidelines that span beyond culture and geography, as I will explore later. For men, although “looks” are less definite in mate selection men with strong physical traits do command a higher status in life.

Max Attraction Silk Pheromones

Luvessentials is the manufacturer of Max Attraction Silk , a highly popular pheromone perfume for women. This product contains over 7 powerful pheromones that help women get the attention they deserve from men.
In addition they have added over 50mg of copulins to make it one of the most potent female pheromones on the market.

It only takes a couple sprays of Max Attraction Silk to experience the amazing effects.

Women’s physical beauty is fiercely put into competition with each other. This explains the high level of difficulty in friendly relationships, especially among multiple beautiful women. But sexual selection is about more than just that with men. A man’s physical beauty can be challenged by another man’s status and his charm. In other words, perceived status matters much more in men in the beginning of a courtship and matters indefinitely in long term relationships. Even in the animal
world females can be lured by males with big gifts and good territories. Check out our full review of Max Attraction Silk at

We are familiar with attractive women. They are often in our minds. But can we break down the details of what makes women beautiful and see past the surface level smoke and mirrors? Here are the breakdowns of each attractive feature and why men respond to them. Keep in mind that the overall facial symmetry is much more important than any one feature, and plastic surgery mishaps often happen due to 1) an over-exaggeration of one feature and 2) the imbalance of a feature compared to the rest of the face. Learn why some men use pheromones to attract women at

Why women should use Pheromones

The great thing about using pheromone perfumes is women can feel beautiful and attractive at the same time. These products are known to increase sexual desire in both sexes. And have been featured on ABC news. Luvessentials has been in business for a long time and has a great reputation with fragrance users.  The only competition they have is Pherazone which is another popular brand. Unlike Pherazone, Max Attraction has less pheromones per bottle and the scent isn’t quite as good. If I had to chose between the two I would probably go with both of them as they tend to compliment each other depending on whether you get the scented or unscented versions.

Some people prefer to use the unscented versions as they can add it to their favorite perfumes or colognes. I would bet thus goes far larger than a few celebs who were using the best pheromones.

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Pheromone Disruption

In the plot treated with pheromones-impregnated hydrophobic paper, none of the released males was recaptured in releases as long as 25 days after treatment.

Similarly encouraging results were obtained in subsequent pre-season tests on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, this time using virgin female moths as bait in some traps and pheromones in others (Stevens and Beroza 1972). However, field tests in naturally infested areas of eastern Pennsylvania in the summer of 1971 failed to demonstrate suppression of mating through application of pheromones on either the hydrophobic paper or on granular cork. It is probable that study sites supported gypsy moth populations which exceeded the upper level at which the disruption technique may eventually be shown to be operational (Cameron 1971). In addition, these tests convinced us that we needed much more knowledge of behavior of adults of both sexes of the insect.

Following further successful pre-season testing on Dauphin Island in 1972 by USDA personnel, larger field tests of the disruption technique were undertaken in central Pennsylvania during the normal flight season in the summer of 1972. Wild insects were placed in 100-hectare study areas, treated with pheromones-impregnated granular cork applied by aircraft, to simulate incipient populations. Approximately 622 g cork, containing either 7.5 or 25 g pheromones, were applied per hectare. In all tests, the proportions of female moths fertilized were reduced, and in two of the four tests these reductions, compared with untreated check plots, were statistically highly significant (Cameron 1973). However, because of the reproductive pheromone potential of the gypsy moth, the reductions were not considered to be biologically significant since they would not cause a downward trend if a natural population of the same size had been allowed to persist through another year.  Learn about the sexiest pheromone perfumes |

Late in August, yet another test of the disruption technique was conducted. A microencapsulated formulation of pheromones was aerially applied to two 100-hec- tare test plots at a rate of 5 g pheromones per hectare*. A sticker was incorporated into the formulation to achieve stratification of the microcapsules throughout the vertical profile of the forest. Laboratory-reared pupae were placed as before to simulate an incipient infestation. During the 12 days of the test, we were unable to detect evidence that even one female in a treated plot was mated. When compared with results from the untreated check plots, these differences were both statistically and biologically significant. Post-season tests with microencapsulated pheormone formulations on Cape Cod by USDA personnel gave similarly encouraging results. Tests in 1973, using both laboratory-reared and wild insects, and applying microencapsulated dis- parture at rates of 2.5-15 g per hectare, substantiated results obtained during 1972 (Cameron et al. 1973a; Schwalbe et al. 1973).

Behaviorally, we know far too little about adult gypsy moths of both sexes. At this point, we do not understand the mechanism by which disruption of response

* The formulation was developed by M. Beroza. using a microencapsulation process developed hy the Capsular Products Division of National (Tush Register Co.. Miamisburg, Ohio 45342.

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Real Pheromones

However, the finding that the amount of volatile acids in vaginal washings from rhesus monkeys increased after incubation at 37°C, but was inhibited by autoclaving or the addition of penicillin before incubation, indicates that pheromonal production depends on bacterial action within the vagina. Gonadal hormones might regulate acid production in vivo by determining the availability of the substrate or the pH of the vagina (Bonsall and Michael 1971; Michael et al. 1972).

19.4. The role of pheromone signals in some other areas of behavior

In the previous pages, we have discussed information transmitted by chemical signals on species and individual identity and on physiological and social conditions of an animal. These messages are probably produced by many more primate species than have been studied so far and are likely to play important roles in a variety of behavioral contexts. They might function in orientation within the home range, and in the correlation of intergroup and intragroup social interactions, including consort relationships, spacing, aggression, territorial defense, and parent—infant relations. The lack of space does not permit me to review the evidence for all of these possible functions. Therefore, further discussion will be limited to a few behavioral categories where the importance of chemical signals is particularly intriguing.

19.4.1. Orientation by pheromone trail marking

Bolwig ‘(1960), Sauer and Sauer (1963) and Seitz (1969) have suggested that one of the functions of urine marking in prosimians, especially nocturnal species, is the production of odoriferous trails which help the animal to orient itself within its home range. Seitz (1969) showed that Nycticebus coucang is capable of using trails of its own urine to orient itself in a totally dark test room. When he introduced subjects into a totally dark room which did not contain any urine trails, the animal showed a phase of initial orientation during which they investigated their environment, continuously sniffing and urine marking.

Following the phase of initial orientation, the subjects showed less olfactory investigation and urine marking, and demonstrated that they were familiar with the new environment. When the subjects were tested under identical conditions after the investigator had applied trails of the subjects’ own urine to the floor of the test room, initial orientation in a new environment took place along the artificial urine trails. After surgical blinding, a female tested in a new environment increased the time she spent sniffing the new environment to 91.6% of the total test time as compared to only 21.1% when her eyesight was intact and she was tested in an illuminated test room. Although Seitz (1969) did not eliminate the possibility that his subjects used other senses (e.g. touch or hearing) during orientation in the test environment, his experiments strongly indicate that when eyesight is eliminated, olfaction can take over and urine trails help the animal to orient itself in an unfamiliar space. Check out pheromones at

The question remains, how strongly the animals rely on their own urine marks for orientation in a natural environment, where they” are hardly ever totally deprived of their ability to see. Seitz’s animals may well have learned to rely on their sense of olfaction and to use urine marks in orienting within a limited space which, after repeated testing, was not altogether unfamiliar to them and which was relatively simple in its three dimensional structure. Learn more about pheromones at 

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My Pheromone Detection System

The substance detected being apparently 5a-androst-16-en-3-one/ (Patterson 1968). A similar material occurs in human male urine, and in female urine during the luteal phase (Brookbank and Hazelwood 1950).

The pheromone detection of this effect seems, however, to depend on the choice of olfactometric method. According to Amoore (Amoore and Venstrom 1966; Amoore personal communication) there is no true change of threshold, but women under the influence of estrogen are more inclined to react psychologically to musky pheromone odors and to describe them as ‘strong’.

True anosmia, both for a musk (pentadecalactone) and for isovaleric acid, has been reported in man (Whissell-Buechy and Amoore 1973). Musk anosmia was found in 7.2% of Caucasians but not in Black subjects; isovaleric acid anosmia was found in 9.1% Blacks and 1.4% Caucasians. The anosmias are heritable, but the samples were not broken down by age, sex, or ingestion of hormones such as oral contraceptives. Anosmia for a potential pheromone is of biologic interest, but there is no evidence that isvaleric acid anosmia, or the suppression of acid vaginal components by the Pill, overtly affect human sexual pheromone behaviors according to

Since human male sexual behavior is non-cyclical and not dependent on female receptivity, the female>male influence may well be releaser only, except possibly in infancy, or in accelerating puberty, and relatively non-specific. It is not clear why odor release should be enhanced at the infertile time of menstruation, unless it overrules an infantile anxiety. The most likely true primer effects would be fe- male>female or male>female — McClintock’s chief example, if it is pheromonal, would be of the first kind: in this event ma1e>female effects could also be sought with virtual certainty. The most likely of these, judging from mammalian form, are cycle modification or initiation (Lee and Boot 1956), seen in mice, most herding animals (sheep, pigs) and, among primates, in lemurs (Jolly 1966); and acceleration of puberty (Vandenbergh 1969).

Human puberty certainly regressed to a late age during the height of Victorian purdah, and has since got steadily earlier (Tanner 1962): this has occurred in both sexes and may well involve social factors — a pheromonal effect would be impossible to isolate. If it existed, it must presumably, in view of human family structure, depend on reinforcement by strangeness, and the presence of non-familial individuals. Learn more about pheromones at

A pheromone effect triggered only during sex play or coitus could not easily be separated from the effects of direct stimulation, though there are such pheromones in primates (Michael and Saayman 1967; Michael and Keverne 1970), and human sex play has a large, though tabooed, orogenital component. Natural pheromone effects on fertility, implantation and the like (Bruce and Parkes 1961) seem more remote in man, though they might be produced by synthetics and would be of great importance if found. The conceptuant and abortefacient effects of odor figured in rnediaeval medical folklore, and musk and civet were among substances so credited.

A male>male effect cannot be ruled out. Its most likely form, on mammalian analogy, would be the release of aggression or submission, but distaste for foreign pheromones.

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Why Pheromones Are Amazing

Pheromones are amazing for pest mitigation. Codling moth, (Cydia pomonella (L): Tortricidae), is considered to be the major pest of pome fruit in Europe, North and South America, South Africa, and Australia. The insect probably originates from the same area as its major host plants in Eurasia, and has been introduced into almost all regions where pome fruit is grown, with the exception of some parts of Asia.’ Primary host plants commonly infested by the co- dling moth are all members of the Rosaceae, and include the apple, pear, and quince; other Rosaceae such as peaches and apricots are less commonly attacked.’ The walnut (family Juglandaceae) may be heavily infested by what is perhaps a distinct race of codling moth in the U.S. and Europe.

The life cycle of the insect can be briefly summarized as follows: The seasonal occurrence of codling moth is closely synchronized with the availability of fruit through- out its distributional range. The insects overwinter as mature dispausing larvae which pupate and give rise to adults in the spring. Fecundity varies widely, and mean figures may range from 30 to 130 eggs per female thanks to pheromones.

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The eggs are laid singly on, or adjacent to, the fruits, which are then mined superficially by the first-instar larvae; if the latter die or leave the fruit, they leave blemishes known as “stings”. The larvae then tunnel towards the center of the fruit and pass through a further four instars. The mature fifth-instar larvae leave the fruits, and seek sheltered cocooning sites in crevices in the bark of the host trees or on the ground. In areas where the pest is univoltine, these larvae again enter an overwintering diapause, while in multivoltine situations all larvae from the last generation, as well as some individuals from earlier generations, pass into diapause in response to shorter day-lengths.

B. Pest Status

The insect is of greatest significance as a pest of apples, particularly the latematur- ing varieties.” In South Africa, Australia, and the western states of North America, codling moth is the key pest of apples; problems with other pests, such as spider mites, arise largely through the destruction of their natural enemies by pesticide treatments designed to control codling moth. In Europe, other parts of North America and New Zealand, codling moth is included in a complex of important pests which may include tortricid leaf rollers, weevils, psyllids, and other insects.”

It is difficult to estimate the actual costs of codling moth infestation because of the numerous pheromonefactors involved. Damage to the fruit can simply be cited as a percentage loss figure and estimates made of the costs in lost production. However, the greatest costs are those of preventive spraying, treatment of secondary pest problems arising from this preventive schedule, and the necessity to grade fruit after harvesting. Infestations are generally lower in areas representing the limits of the distributional range of codling moth, where only one generation is completed annually. In more favorable areas, the pest may complete up to three generations and has a greater potential to damage crops. In unsprayed apple orchards, mean fruit damage varies from 10% in Europe’ to 50 to 100% in Australia.’ In eastern Canada, infestations in treated apple orchards may average 2.5%,5 which, if taken as a conservative estimate for the remain- der of North America, would represent an annual loss of $14 million (based on I971 prices, and earlier production figures’). On the basis of this same damage figure, losses in Europe’ would amount to $46 million annually. Learn more about pheromones at

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